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Plastic change often results from the alteration of the number of neurotransmitter receptors located on a synapse.
There are several underlying mechanisms that cooperate to achieve synaptic plasticity, including changes in the quantity of neurotransmitters released into a synapse and changes in how effectively cells respond to those neurotransmitters.
Some neurons such as photoreceptor cells, for example, do not have myelinated axons that conduct action potentials.
Other unipolar neurons found in invertebrates do not even have distinguishing processes such as dendrites.
Thus, the fundamental difference between a neuron and a nonneuronal cell is a matter of degree.When ionotropic receptors are activated, certain ion species such as Na to enter the postsynaptic neuron, which depolarizes the postsynaptic membrane.If more of the same type of postsynaptic receptors are activated, then more Na will enter the postsynaptic membrane and depolarize cell.The undershoot phase occurs because unlike voltage-gated sodium channels, voltage-gated potassium channels inactivate much more slowly.Nevertheless, as more voltage-gated K channels become inactivated, the membrane potential recovers to its normal resting steady state..